50:50 Model

 Spanish Instruction  English Instruction
 Kindergarten 50% 50%
 First Grade 50% 50%
 Second Grade 50% 50%
 Third Grade 50% 50%
 Fourth Grade 50% 50%
 Fifth Grade 50% 50%

90:10 Model

This refers to the amount of time that teachers instruct in Spanish and English in bilingual (Developmental Bilingual and Dual Language Immersion) classrooms.  The numbers 90:10 refer to the ratio of instructional time in Spanish and English.  As you can see in the chart below, in kindergarten, students are instructed 90% of the time in Spanish and 10% of the school day in English.  In a 90:10 model, the amount of time that students are instructed in Spanish decreases yearly (as instruction in English increases) until students are instructed 50% of the day in Spanish and 50% in English. 

 Spanish Instruction  English Instruction
 Kindergarten 90% 10%
 First Grade 80% 20%
 Second Grade 70% 30%
 Third Grade 60% 40%
 Fourth Grade 50% 50%
 Fifth Grade 50% 50%

Bilingual Resource Specialist (BRS)

Non-certified staff who are multilingual and provide students with native language and cultural support.  BRS support English Language Learners in general education classrooms and also have a unique role within each building to aid cultural understanding, communication, and provide interpretation and translation services. 

Bilingual Resource Teacher (BRT)

Instructs and provides support to English Language Learners in general education classrooms.  Classroom instruction is provided in English and Spanish.  BRTs have a specialized bilingual certification. 

Bilingual Teacher

Primary classroom teacher in both Developmental Bilingual Education and Dual Language Immersion programs.  Bilingual Teachers are certified teachers and in addition, have a specialized bilingual certification. 

DPI Level

This is the number assigned to a student to represent their level of English Language Proficiency (ELP).  It is based on either their initial assessment upon enrollment in the MMSD (K-Model or W-APT) or on the annual English Language Proficiency exam (ACCESS or Alternate ACCESS.)  As a student moves to a new grade level each year, academic content and vocabulary also advances, making the DPI level a "moving target" as expectations for each DPI level change as a student advances in grade level.  (This means that there are different expectations for a DPI level 2 at kindergarten versus 6th grade.)  Information from the Wisconsin Department of Public Instruction about ELP Levels 

Developmental Bilingual Education (DBE)

Students in a DBE program receive instruction in their native language of Spanish as well as in English, following the 90:10 model. Lessons are not provided in one language and then repeated in the other, but rather skills and knowledge taught in one language are reinforced in the other language through thematic teaching and attention to cross-linguistic development. (Taken from the Center for Applied Linguistics) Students are taught by a bilingual teacher who is not only certified in elementary education, but is also certified in bilingual education. Students are integrated with native English-speakers for specials, lunch/recess, and/or through a "buddy classroom."

Dual Language Immersion (DLI)

In a DLI program, classroom instruction is provided in both Spanish and English, and follows the 90:10 model. Lessons are not provided in one language and then repeated in the other, but rather skills and knowledge taught in one language are reinforced in the other language through thematic teaching and attention to cross-linguistic development. (taken from the Center for Applied Linguistics) Students are taught by a bilingual teacher who is not only certified in elementary education, but is also certified in bilingual education. The classrooms are comprised of 50% native Spanish-speaking students and 50% native English-speaking students/ELLs of non-Spanish background.

English as a Second Language (ESL)

Services provided to support ELLs enrolled in a general education classroom by a certified ESL teacher or a BRT in collaboration with the general education teacher. ESL support looks differently for each individual student based on their needs.

English as a Second Language (ESL) Teacher

Instructs and provides support to ELLs in general education classrooms. Instruction is in English. ESL Teachers have a specialized ESL certification.

English Language Learner (ELL)

This term can encompass students from a lot of different cultural and linguistic backgrounds. In general, an English Language Learner is a student who has had significant exposure to a language other than or in addition to English. This can range from a student who just moved to the United States and speaks no English, to a student who was born in the United States whose family speaks not only English but also their heritage/native language. So, although the term "English Language Learner" implies that the student needs to learn English, sometimes the student is multilingual and is fully proficient in multiple languages. By law, school districts are required to assess any English Language Learner's English Language Proficiency.

English Language Proficiency (ELP) Level

See DPI Level.

Home Language Survey

In Wisconsin, each school board shall identify potential ELL students within the school district as part of the enrollment process using a home language survey and the state approved English proficiency assessment (PI 13.07). The Home Language Survey (HLS) is a required document as the first step in the ELL identification process in Wisconsin. The HLS must be completed for each student at the time of registration. Take from the Wisconsin Department of Public Instruction website. Please click here to read more about the legal requirements for enrolling English Language Learners.

Individual Plan of Service (IPS)

Under No Child Left Behind (NCLB), Title IIIA requires districts and schools to notify parents annually of: the reason for identifying their child as an English Language Learner, program placement, English Language Proficiency Level (or DPI Level), academic achievement status, instructional methods being used to promote academic achievement and language acquisition, how the program will meet the strengths and needs of the child, specific program exit requirements and expected date of graduation, if a student has a disability how the program will meet the objectives of their individualized education program (IEP), the parent's right to have their child removed from the program upon request, other available program options and how a parent can receive assistance to access them.

Limited English Proficient/Proficiency (LEP)

This is an antiquated term for an English Language Learner. MMSD does not use this term.

 

Assessments: 

The assessments below are specific to English Language Learners (in all program types) and non-English Language Learners in Dual Language Immersion programming. For information about all assessments given in the Madison Metropolitan School District, please visit the Department of Research, Accountability and Data Use's Assessment Webpage.

 ACCESS

(Assessing in Comprehension and Communication in English State-to-state) - This assessment is in compliance with No Child Left Behind Act (NCLB; 2001) and serves as the annual assessment for English Language Learners kindergarten through 12th grade.  The ACCESS assesses students' abilities in the English language (determines English Language Proficiency, or ELP, Level.)  It does not measure content knowledge.  For information, please visit WIDA's ACCESS for ELLs page

 Alternate ACCESS

The Alternate ACCESS for ELLs is an assessment of English language proficiency (ELP) for students in grades 1 -12 who are classified as English language learners (ELLs) and have significant cognitive disabilities that prevent their meaningful participation in the ACCESS for ELLs® assessment. The No Child Left Behind Act (NCLB; 2001) requires that all students identified as ELLs be assessed annually for English language proficiency, including students who receive special education services. The Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA; 2004) also mandates that students with disabilities participate in state-wide and district-wide assessment programs, including alternate assessments with appropriate accommodations, when it is documented in their Individualized Education Programs (IEP).  

This information was taken from WIDA's Alternate ACCESS webpage

AIMSweb® MIDE

(Medidas Incrementales de Destrezas Esenciales) - AIMSweb has replaced PLAA as the assessment used to progress monitor students in literacy.  The AIMSweb MIDE is being piloted in just a couple of MMSD schools to measure literacy for Spanish-speakers in our Developmental Bilingual and Dual Language Immersion programs in the primary grades.

APRENDA 3 The APRENDA 3 is administered in Spanish and measures content knowledge of Spanish-speaking students in Developmental Bilingual and Dual Language Immersion programs in 2nd, 4th, and 6th grades.
IPT  (IDEA Proficiency Test) - The MMSD uses the IPT I Oral Spanish Language Proficiency Test to determine the Spanish language proficiency level of students in our Dual Language Immersion (DLI) programs.  Just as it is important to be measuring English Language Learners' proficiency in English to make sure that they are acquiring the English language, we also need to ensure that native English-speakers in DLI programs are acquiring the Spanish language.  Native English-speakers in DLI programs are given the IPT in kindergarten, 2nd and 5th grade.
K-MODEL (Kindergarten Measure of Developing English Language) - This is the initial language screener given to kindergarten students upon enrollment.  It is used to identify English Language Learners, aid placement, and inform services.  For more information, please visit WIDA's MODEL Assessment webpage
PALS Español (Phonological Awareness Literacy Screening in Spanish) - The MMSD recently replaced the Spanish Primary Language Arts Assessment (SPLAA) with PALS and AIMSweb.  PALS Español measures the fundamental components of literacy and identifies kindergarten students' strengths and needs so teachers can create targeted instruction.  Students in Developmental Bilingual Education and Dual Language Immersion programming are given the PALS Español to measure student Spanish literacy.  
SPLAA (Spanish Primary Language Arts Assessment) - This assessment (as well as the English version, PLAA) have been replaced by the AIMSweb and PALS assessments in the MMSD.  However, PLAA and SPLAA may continue to be used to monitor Text Reading Level from kindergarten up to about 2nd or 3rd grade.  The SPLAA measures Text Reading Level in Spanish for students in Developmental Bilingual and Dual Language Immersion classrooms.
W-APT (WIDA-ACCESS Placement Test) - This is the initial language screener given to 1st-12th grade students upon enrollment.  It is used to identify English Language Learners, aid placement, and inform services. Generally, students only take this assessment one time for their initial placement into English as a Second Language or bilingual services.  However, if a student has a lapse in services (for example, if they leave the country and then return two years later) they may need to take the assessment again for correct placement.

 

Related Terms 

Bilingual Education

This term encompasses many forms of education in which students are taught in two languages.  The various programs have differing models and goals.  Bilingual Education includes Developmental Bilingual Education and Dual Language Immersion, program models which MMSD offers and it also includes other program models that MMSD does not provide.

 Foreign Language

See World Language.

One-Way Immersion

This program model is a form of bilingual education & dual language immersion (being taught in two languages.)  The reason this program is called one-way is due to the student make-up.  All students in the classroom are learning a language other than English and and being instructed in English as well.  What distinguishes this from two-way immersion is that none of the students are native speakers of the language other than English.  For example, a one-way immersion classroom could be students being instructed in both English and Chinese where none of the students are native Chinese-speakers. 

Two-Way Immersion This program model is a form of bilingual education & dual language immersion (being taught in two languages.) This is the program model that MMSD provides and it the type of program model we refer to as "Dual Language Immersion."  Half of the students are native speakers of English and the other half of the students are native speakers of the target language of instruction, in the case of MMSD's programs, Spanish.  All students act as a first language model and a second language learner which is why the program model is called "two-way."
World Language Students are invited to learn a language other than English through middle and high school course work, elementary after school programs or community based programs.  This type of language study used to be referred to as "foreign language" however, we now use the term "World Language" to represent the fact that the languages taught in our schools are languages of our local community.  Click here for more information about World Language opportunities.